Tuesday, February 3, 2009


Charles Mingus (22 April 1922–5 January 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. He was also known for his activism against racial injustice.

Mingus is considered one of the most important composers and performers of jazz, and he recorded many highly regarded albums. Dozens of musicians passed through his bands and later went on to impressive careers. His tunes—though melodic and distinctive—are not often re-recorded, in part because of their unconventional nature. Mingus was also influential and creative as a band leader, recruiting talented and sometimes little-known artists whom he assembled into unconventional and revealing configurations.

Nearly as well known as his ambitious music was Mingus' often fearsome temperament, which earned him the nickname "The Angry Man of Jazz." His refusal to compromise his musical integrity led to many on-stage eruptions, though it has been argued that his temper also grew from a need to vent frustration.

Mingus was prone to depression. He tended to have brief periods of extreme creative activity, intermixed with fairly long periods of greatly decreased output.

Most of Mingus's music retained the hot and soulful feel of hard bop and drew heavily from black gospel music while sometimes drawing on elements of Third Stream, free jazz, and even classical music. Yet Mingus avoided categorization, forging his own brand of music that fused tradition with unique and unexplored realms of jazz. Mingus focused on collective improvisation, similar to the old New Orleans Jazz parades, paying particular attention to how each band member interacted with the group as a whole. In creating his bands, Mingus looked not only at the skills of the available musicians, but also their personalities. He strove to create unique music to be played by unique musicians.

Due to his brilliant writing for mid-size ensembles—and his catering to and emphasizing the strengths of the musicians in his groups—Mingus is often considered the heir apparent to Duke Ellington, for whom he expressed unqualified admiration. Indeed, Dizzy Gillespie had once claimed Mingus reminded him "of a young Duke", citing their shared "organizational genius.


Early life and career

Charles Mingus was born in Nogales, Arizona. He was raised largely in the Watts area of Los Angeles, California. His mother's paternal heritage was Chinese and English, while historical records indicate that his father was the illegitimate offspring of a black farmhand and his Swedish employer's white granddaughter.

His mother allowed only church-related music in their home, but Mingus developed an early love for jazz, especially the music of Duke Ellington. He studied trombone, and later cello. Much of the cello technique he learned was applicable to double bass when he took up the instrument in high school.

Beginning in his teen years, Mingus was writing quite advanced pieces; many are similar to Third Stream Jazz. A number of them were recorded in 1960 with conductor Gunther Schuller, and released as Pre-Bird, referring to Charlie "Bird" Parker.

Mingus gained a reputation as something of a bass prodigy. He toured with Louis Armstrong in 1943, then played with Lionel Hampton's band in the late 1940s; Hampton performed and recorded several of Mingus's pieces. A popular trio of Mingus, Red Norvo and Tal Farlow in 1950 and 1951 received considerable acclaim, but Mingus' mixed origin caused problems with club owners and he left the group. Mingus was briefly a member of Ellington's band in the early 1950s, and Mingus's notorious temper reportedly led to his being the only musician personally fired by Ellington (although there are reports that Sidney Bechet in 1925 was another), after an on-stage fight between Mingus and Juan Tizol. 

Also in the early 1950s, before attaining commercial recognition as a bandleader, Mingus played gigs with Charlie Parker, whose compositions and improvisations greatly inspired and influenced him. Mingus considered Parker the greatest genius and innovator in jazz history, but he had a love-hate relationship with Parker's legacy. Mingus blamed the Parker mythology for a derivative crop of pretenders to Parker's throne. He was also conflicted and sometimes disgusted by Parker's self-destructive habits and the romanticized lure of drug addiction they offered to other jazz musicians. In response to the many sax players who imitated Parker, Mingus titled a song, "If Charlie Parker were a Gunslinger, There'd be a Whole Lot of Dead Copycats" (released on Mingus Dynasty as "Gunslinging Bird").

Based in New York

In 1952 Mingus co-founded Debut Records with Max Roach, in order to conduct his recording career as he saw fit; the name originated with a desire to document unrecorded young musicians. Despite this, the best known recording the company issued was of the most prominent figures in bebop. On May 15, 1953, Mingus joined Dizzy Gillespie, Parker, Bud Powell, and Roach for a concert at Massey Hall in Toronto, which is the last recorded documentation of the two lead instrumentalists playing together. After the event, Mingus chose to overdub his barely-audible bass part back in New York; the original version was issued later. The two 10" albums of the Massey Hall concert (one featured the trio of Powell, Mingus and Roach) were among Debut Records' earliest releases. Mingus may have objected to the way the major record companies treated musicians, but Gillespie once commented that he did not receive any royalties "for years and years" for his Massey Hall appearance. The records though, are often regarded as among the finest live jazz recordings.

In 1955, Mingus was involved in a notorious incident while playing a club date billed as a "reunion" with Parker, Powell, and Roach. Powell, who had suffered from alcoholism and mental illness for years (potentially exacerbated by a severe police beating and electroshock treatments), had to be helped from the stage, unable to play or speak coherently. As Powell's incapacitation became apparent, Parker stood in one spot at a microphone, chanting "Bud Powell...Bud Powell..." as if beseeching Powell's return. Allegedly, Parker continued this incantation for several minutes after Powell's departure, to his own amusement and Mingus' exasperation. Mingus took another microphone and announced to the crowd, "Ladies and gentlemen, please don't associate me with any of this. This is not jazz. These are sick people." This was Parker's last public performance; about a week later Parker died after years of alcohol and drug abuse.

Mingus often worked with a mid-sized ensemble (around 8–10 members) of rotating musicians known as the Jazz Workshop. Mingus broke new ground, constantly demanding that his musicians be able to explore and develop their perceptions on the spot. Those who joined the Workshop (or Sweatshops as they were colorfully dubbed by the musicians) included Pepper Adams, Jaki Byard, Booker Ervin, John Handy, Jimmy Knepper, Charles McPherson and Horace Parlan. Mingus shaped these promising novices into a cohesive improvisational machine that in many ways anticipated free jazz. Some musicians dubbed the workshop a "university" for jazz.

Pithecanthropus Erectus among other creations

The decade which followed is generally regarded as Mingus's most productive and fertile period. Impressive new compositions and albums appeared at an astonishing rate: some thirty records in ten years, for a number of record labels (Atlantic Records, Candid, Columbia Records, Impulse! Records and others), a pace perhaps unmatched by any other musician except Ellington.

Mingus had already recorded around ten albums as a bandleader, but 1956 was a breakthrough year for him, with the release of Pithecanthropus Erectus, arguably his first major work as both a bandleader and composer. Like Ellington, Mingus wrote songs with specific musicians in mind, and his band for Erectus included adventurous, though distinctly blues-oriented musicians, piano player Mal Waldron, alto saxophonist Jackie McLean and the Sonny Rollins-influenced tenor of J. R. Monterose. The title song is a ten minute tone poem, depicting the rise of man from his hominid roots (Pithecanthropus erectus) to an eventual downfall. A section of the piece was improvised free of structure or theme.

Another album from this period, The Clown (1957 also on Atlantic Records), with an improvised story on the title track by humorist Jean Shepherd, was the first to feature drummer Dannie Richmond. Richmond would be his preferred drummer until Mingus's death in 1979. The two men formed one of the most impressive and versatile rhythm sections in jazz. Both were accomplished performers seeking to stretch the boundaries of their music while staying true to its roots. When joined by pianist Jaki Byard, they were dubbed "The Almighty Three".

Mingus Ah Um and other works

Mingus witnessed Ornette Coleman's legendary—and controversial—1960 appearances at New York City's Five Spot jazz club. Though he initially expressed rather mixed feelings for Coleman's innovative music: "...if the free-form guys could play the same tune twice, then I would say they were playing something...Most of the time they use their fingers on the saxophone and they don't even know what's going to come out. They're experimenting." Mingus was in fact a prime influence of the early free jazz era. He formed a quartet with Richmond, trumpeter Ted Curson and saxophonist Eric Dolphy. This ensemble featured the same instruments as Coleman's quartet, and is often regarded as Mingus rising to the challenging new standard established by Coleman. Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus, the quartet's sole album, is frequently included among the finest in Mingus's catalogue.

Only one misstep occurred in this era: 1962's Town Hall Concert. An ambitious program, it was unfortunately plagued with troubles from its inception. Mingus's vision was finally realized in 1989, see Epitaph (Mingus).

The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady and the other Impulse! albums

In 1963, Mingus released The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady, a sprawling, multi-section masterpiece, described as "one of the greatest achievements in orchestration by any composer in jazz history." The album was also unique in that Mingus asked his psychotherapist to provide notes for the record.

1963 also saw the release of an unaccompanied album Mingus Plays Piano. His piano technique, though capable and expressive, was somewhat unrefined when compared to Herbie Hancock or other contemporary jazz pianists, but the album is still generally well regarded. A few pieces were entirely improvised and drew on classical music as much as jazz, preceding Keith Jarrett's landmark The Köln Concert in those respects by some twelve years.

In 1964 Mingus put together one of his best-known groups, a sextet including Dannie Richmond, Jaki Byard, Eric Dolphy, trumpeter Johnny Coles, and tenor saxophonist Clifford Jordan. The group was recorded frequently during its short existence; Coles fell ill during a European tour. On June 28, 1964 Dolphy died while in Berlin, and Mingus was evicted from his New York home in 1966.


Mingus's pace slowed somewhat in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1974 he formed a quintet with Richmond, pianist Don Pullen, trumpeter Jack Walrath and saxophonist George Adams. They recorded two well-received albums, Changes One and Changes Two. Mingus also played with Charles McPherson in many of his groups during this time.

Cumbia and Jazz Fusion in 1976 sought to blend Colombian music (the "Cumbia" of the title) with more traditional jazz forms.

In 1971, Mingus taught for a semester at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York as the Slee Professor of Music. 

Later career and death

By the mid-1970s, Mingus was suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (popularly known as Lou Gehrig's disease), a wastage of the musculature. His once formidable bass technique suffered, until he could no longer play the instrument. He continued composing, however, and supervised a number of recordings before his death.

Mingus died aged 56 in Cuernavaca, Mexico, where he had traveled for treatment and convalescence. His ashes were scattered in the Ganges River.

At the time of his death, Mingus had been recording an album with singer Joni Mitchell, which included vocal versions of some of his songs (including "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat") among Mitchell originals and short, spoken word duets and home recordings of Mitchell and Mingus. The album featured Jaco Pastorius, another influential bassist and composer.


The Mingus Big Band

The music of Charles Mingus is currently being performed and reinterpreted by the Mingus Big Band, which, starting October 2008, plays every Monday at Jazz Standard in New York City, and often tours the rest of the U.S. and Europe. Elvis Costello has written lyrics for a few Mingus pieces. He had once sung lyrics for one piece, "Invisible Lady", being backed by the Mingus Big Band on the album, Tonight at Noon: Three of Four Shades of Love.[9]

In addition to the Mingus Big Band, there is the Mingus Orchestra and the Mingus Dynasty, each of which are managed by Jazz Workshop, Inc., and run by Mingus's widow Sue Graham Mingus. Other tribute bands are also active all around the US and the world, including Mingus Amungus in the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Swedish Mingus Band Siegmund Freud's Mothers in Stockholm.


Epitaph is considered by many to be the masterwork of Charles Mingus. It is a composition which is more than 4,000 measures long, requires two hours to perform and was only completely discovered during the cataloguing process after his death by musicologist Andrew Homzy. With the help of a grant from the Ford Foundation, the score and instrumental parts were copied, and the piece itself was premiered by a 30-piece orchestra, conducted by Gunther Schuller. This concert was produced by Mingus's widow, Sue Graham Mingus, at Alice Tully Hall on June 3, 1989, ten years after his death. Epitaph is one of the longest jazz pieces ever written. It was performed again at several concerts in 2007. The performance at Walt Disney Concert Hall is available on NPR. The complete score was published in 2008 by Hal Leonard.


Written throughout the 1960s, Mingus's autobiography, Beneath the Underdog.[10], was published in 1971. Written in a "stream of consciousness" style, it covered several aspects of Mingus's life that had previously been off-record.

In addition to his musical proliferation, Mingus goes into great detail about his sexual proclivity. He claims to have had over 31 affairs over the course of his life (26 in one sitting). This does not include any of his five wives (he claims to have been married to two of them simultaneously). In addition, he asserts that he held a brief career as a pimp. This has never been confirmed.

Mingus's autobiography also serves as an insight into his history of violent behavior, as well as his contempt for consideration of race in the music business. [11] Autobiographic accounts of abuse at the hands of his father from an early age, being bullied as a child, his removal from a white musician's union, and grappling with dissaproval while married to white women are all examples of the hardship and prejudice that left Mingus with a giant chip on his shoulder.[12]

Cover versions

Considering the number of compositions that Charles Mingus has written, his works have not been recorded as often as comparable jazz composers. Of all his works, his elegant elegy for Lester Young, "Goodbye Porkpie Hat" (from Mingus Ah Um) has probably had the most recordings. Besides recordings from the expected jazz artists, the song has also been recorded by musicians as disparate as Jeff Beck, Andy Summers, Eugene Chadbourne, and Bert Jansch and John Renbourn with and without Pentangle. Joni Mitchell sang a version with lyrics that she wrote for the song. Elvis Costello has recorded "Hora Decubitus" (from Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus) on My Flame Burns Blue (2006). "Better Git It in Your Soul" was covered by Davey Graham on his album "Folk, Blues, and Beyond." Trumpeter Ron Miles performs a version of "Pithecanthropus Erectus" on his EP "Witness." New York Ska Jazz Ensemble has done a cover of Mingus' "Haitian Fight Song", as have Pentangle and others. Hal Willner's 1992 tribute album Weird Nightmare: Meditations on Mingus (Columbia Records) contains idiosyncratic renditions of Mingus's works involving numerous popular musicians including Chuck D, Keith Richards, Henry Rollins and Dr. John. The Italian band Quintorigo recorded an entire album devoted to Mingus' music, titled Play Mingus.

Personality and temper 

As respected as Mingus was for his musical talents, he was sometimes feared for his occasional violent onstage temper, which was at times directed at members of his band, and other times aimed at the audience. He was physically large, prone to obesity (especially in his later years), and was by all accounts often intimidating and frightening when expressing anger or displeasure.

When confronted with a nightclub audience talking and clinking ice in their glasses while he performed, Mingus stopped his band and loudly chastised the audience, stating "Isaac Stern doesn't have to put up with this shit." He once played a prank on a similar group of nightclub chatterers by silencing his band for several seconds, allowing the loud audience members to be clearly heard, then continuing as the rest of the audience snickered at the oblivious "soloists".

Guitarist and singer Jackie Paris was a first-hand witness to Mingus's irascibility. Paris recalls his time in the Jazz Workshop: "He chased everybody off the stand except [drummer] Paul Motian and me... The three of us just wailed on the blues for about an hour and a half before he called the other cats back."

On October 12, 1962, Mingus punched Jimmy Knepper in the mouth while the two men were working together at Mingus's apartment on a score for his upcoming concert at New York Town Hall and Knepper refused to take on more work. The blow from Mingus broke off a crowned tooth and its underlying stub. According to Knepper, this ruined his embouchure and resulted in the permanent loss of the top octave of his range on the trombone - a significant handicap for any professional trombonist. This attack ended their working relationship and Knepper was unable to perform at the concert. Charged with assault, Mingus appeared in court in January, 1963 and was given a suspended sentence.

Mingus was also evicted from his apartment at 5 Great Jones Street in New York City because he fired a gun through his wall into a neighbor's apartment.

Awards and honors

1971 Guggenheim Fellowship (Music Composition)
1971: Inducted in the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame.
1993: The Library of Congress acquired Mingus's collected papers — including scores, sound recordings, correspondence and photos — in what they described as "the most important acquisition of a manuscript collection relating to jazz in the Library's history".
1995: The United States Postal Service issued a stamp in his honor.
1997: Was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.
1999: The album Mingus Dynasty (1959) was inducted in the Grammy Hall of Fame.
2005: Inducted in the Jazz at Lincoln Center, Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame.


As bandleader

Baron Mingus - West Coast 1945-49 (1949, Uptown)
Strings and Keys (duo with Spaulding Givens) (1951, Debut)
The Young Rebel (1952, Swingtime)
The Charles Mingus Duo and Trio (1953, Fantasy)
Charles Mingus Octet (1953, Debut)
The Moods of Mingus (1954, Savoy)
The Jazz Experiments of Charles Mingus (1954, Bethlehem)
Jazzical Moods (1954, Bethlehem)
Mingus at the Bohemia (1955, Debut)
The Charles Mingus Quintet & Max Roach (1955, Debut)
Pithecanthropus Erectus (1956, Atlantic)
The Clown (1957, Atlantic)
The Jazz Experiments of Charles Mingus (1957)
Mingus Three (1957, Jubilee)
East Coasting (1957, Bethlehem)
A Modern Jazz Symposium of Music and Poetry (1957, Bethlehem)
Blues & Roots (1959, Atlantic)
Mingus Ah Um (1959, Columbia)
Mingus Dynasty (1959, Columbia)
Jazz Portraits: Mingus in Wonderland (1959, United Artists)
Pre Bird (1960, Mercury)
Mingus at Antibes (1960, Atlantic)
Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus (1960, Candid)
Reincarnation of a Love Bird (1960, Candid)
Tonight at Noon (1961, Atlantic)
Vital Savage Horizons (1962, Alto)
Tempo di Jazz (1962, Tempo di Jazz)
Town Hall Concert (1962, Blue Note)
Oh Yeah (1962, Atlantic)
Tijuana Moods (1962, RCA)
The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady (1963, Impulse!)
Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus (1963, Impulse!; sometimes referred to as Five Mingus)
Mingus Plays Piano (1963, Impulse!)
Soul Fusion (1963, Pickwick live)
Revenge! (live 1964 performance with Eric Dolphy, 32 Jazz; previously issued by Prestige as The Great Paris Concert)
Town Hall Concert (1964, Fantasy)
Concertgebouw Amsterdam, Vol. 1 (1964, Ulysse Musique)
Charles Mingus Live In Oslo 1964 Featuring Eric Dolphy (1964, Jazz Up)
Charles Mingus Sextet Live In Stockholm 1964 (1964, Royal Jazz)
Charles Mingus Sextet Live In Europe (1964, Unique Jazz)
The Great Concert Of Charles Mingus (1964, America)
Charles Mingus Sextet with Eric Dolphy CORNELL March 18 1964 (2007, Blue Note)
Mingus In Europe (1964, Enja)
Mingus In Stuttgart, April 28, 1964 Concert (1964, Unique Jazz)
Right Now: Live At The Jazz Workshop (1964, Fantasy)
Mingus At Monterey (1964, Mingus JWS)
Music Written For Monterey 1965. Not Heard... Played In Its Entirety At UCLA, Vol. 1&2 (1965, Mingus JWS)
Charles Mingus - Cecil Taylor (1966, Ozone)
Statements (1969, Joker)
Paris TNP (1970, Ulysse Musique)
Charles Mingus Sextet In Berlin (1970, Beppo)
Charles Mingus (1971, Columbia)
Charles Mingus And Friends In Concert (1972, Columbia)
Charles Mingus Quintet Featuring Dexter Gordon (1972, White Label)
Let My Children Hear Music (1972, Columbia)
Passions of a Man (1973, Atlantic)
Mingus At Carnegie Hall (1974, Atlantic)
Changes One (1974, Atlantic)
Changes Two (1974, Atlantic)
Mingus Moves (1974, Atlantic)
Village Vanguard 1975 (1975, Blue Mark Music)
The Music Of Charles Mingus (1977, Bayside)
Stormy & Funky Blues (1977)
Cumbia & Jazz Fusion (1977, Atlantic)
Three or Four Shades of Blues (1977)
Something Like a Bird (1979, Atlantic) (Mingus does not play on this session)
Me, Myself An Eye (1979, Atlantic) (Mingus does not play on this session)
Epitaph (1990, Columbia) (Mingus does not play on this session)
Mingus Mysterious Blues (1990, Candid) (Mingus does not play on this session)

As a sideman

Robbins' Nest (with Illinois Jacquet) (1945, Toho)
Mellow Mama (with Dinah Washington) (1945, Delmark)
Hot Piano (with Wilbert Baranco) (1946, Tops)
Ivie Anderson and Her All Stars (with Ivie Anderson) (1946, Storyville)
Lionel Hampton and His Orchestra 1948 (with Lionel Hampton) ((1948, Weka)
Lionel Hampton in Concert (with Lionel Hampton) ((1948, Cicala Jazz)
The Red Norvo Trio (with Red Norvo) (1951, Savoy)
Move (with Red Norvo) (1951, Savoy)
Miles Davis at Birdland 1951 (with Miles Davis) (1951, Beppo)
Jazz in Storyville (with Billy Taylor) (1951, Roost)
The George Wallington Trios Featuring Charles Mingus, Oscar Pettiford, Max Roach (1952, Prestige)
Spring Broadcasts 1953 (with Bud Powell) (1953, ESP)
Inner Fires (with Bud Powell) (1953, Electra/Musician)
Jazz at Massey Hall (aka. The Greatest Jazz Concert Ever) (with Charlie Parker) (1953, Debut)
Introducing Paul Bley (with Paul Bley) (1953, Debut)
Explorations (with Teo Macero) (1953, Debut)
The New Oscar Pettiford Sextet (with Oscar Pettiford) (1953, Debut)
Ada Moore (with Ada Moore) (1954, Debut)
Mad Bebop (with J.J. Johnson) (1954, Savoy)
The Eminent J.J. Johnson (with J.J. Johnson) (1954, Blue Note)
Evolution (with Teddy Charles) (1955, Prestige)
Relaxed Piano Moods (with Hazel Scott) (1955, Debut)
The John Mehegan Trio/Quartet (with John Mehegan) (1955, Savoy)
Very Truly Yours (with Jimmy Scott) (1955, Savoy)
The Fabulous Thad Jones (with Thad Jones) (1955, Debut)
New Piano Expressions (with John Dennis) (1955, Debut)
Easy Jazz (with Ralph Sharon) (1955, London)
Blues Moods (with Miles Davis) (1955, Prestige)
The Word from Bird (with Teddy Charles) (1956, Atlantic)
New Faces (with Jimmy Knepper) (1957, Debut)
Money Jungle (with Duke Ellington and Max Roach) (1962, Blue Note)


1959, Mingus provided the music for John Cassavetes's gritty New York City film, Shadows.
1961, Mingus appeared as a bassist and actor in the British film All Night Long.
1968, Thomas Reichman directed the documentary Mingus: Charlie Mingus 1968.
1991, Ray Davies produced a documentary entitled Weird Nightmare. It contains footage of Mingus and interviews with artists making Hal Willner's tribute album of the same name, including Elvis Costello, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, and Vernon Reid.
Charles Mingus: Triumph of the Underdog is a 78 minute long documentary film on Charles Mingus directed by Don McGlynn and released in 1998.

Further reading

Beneath the Underdog, his autobiography, presents a vibrantly boastful and possibly apocryphal account of his early career as a pimp.
Myself When I Am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus by Gene Santoro, Oxford University Press (November 1, 2001), 480 pages, ISBN 0-19-514711-1
Mingus: A Critical Biography by Brian Priestley, Da Capo Press (April 1, 1984), 340 pages, ISBN 0-306-80217-1
Tonight At Noon: A Love Story by Sue Graham Mingus, Da Capo Press; Reprint edition (April, 2003), 272 pages, ISBN 0-306-81220-7. Written by his widow.
Charles Mingus - More Than a Fake Book by Charles Mingus, Hal Leonard Corporation (November 1, 1991), 160 pages, ISBN 0-7935-0900-9. Includes 2 CDs, photos, discography, music transcriptions, a Mingus comic book promoting his anti-bootlegging project, etc.
Mingus/Mingus : Two Memoirs by Janet Coleman, Al Young, Limelight Editions (August 1, 2004), 164 pages, ISBN 0-87910-149-0
I Know What I Know : The Music of Charles Mingus by Todd S. Jenkins, Praeger (2006), 196 pages, ISBN 0-27598-102-9
But Beautiful by Geoff Dyer, Abacus (2006), pages 103 - 127, ISBN 0-349-11005-0


David Simpson. "Myself When I Am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, by Gene Santoro". Jazz Institute of Chicago book review. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
Myself When I am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, Gene Santoro (Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 0195097335
Hentoff, Nat (1978). Jazz Is. W H Allen. pp. 34–35.
"Five More Articles on Jazz (Rexroth)". Bureau of Public Secrets article.
 Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, Ingrid Monson (University of Chicago Press, 1997) ISBN 0226534782
Gene Santoro (2000-06-06). "Town Hall Train Wreck". The Village Voice. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
"The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady". Album overview on Allmusic.
The Musical Styles of Charles Mingus, (Warner Bros. Publications, Jazz Workshop, 1982)
"Tonight at Noon: Three of Four Shades of Love". Album overview on Allmusic.
Mingus, Charles. Beneath the Underdog: His Life as Composed by Mingus. New York, NY: Vintage, 1991.
"René Marie: Jump, and the net will appear". Interview by Bruce Crowther.
"Paris When He Sizzles". Village Voice article by Will Friedwald.
Santoro, 2000
"JIMMY KNEPPER". The Independent article by Steve Voce.
Library of Congress press release, June 11, 1993. Rule, S. "Library of Congress buys Charles Mingus Archive", New York Times, June 14, 1993

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